Early 1900s Medical Question

Hello, I have a question about childhood illness in the early 1900s. An 8 1/2 year old caucasion girl in a rural TN town died in 1919 from 'Cancer of the Bowels,' as stated on the death certificate. After some research I found that she'd been sick & been seen by a doctor at her home for 13 months. I don't understand what 'cancer of the bowels' meant in this time, since colon cancer is somewhat rare in kids. Also, this town is 30 min from Nashville & the General Hospital that was there at the time. I understand they didn't have cars, but I don't have enough knowledge to understand why she wasn't able to be at a hospital before the point of her getting that terminal. This child was from a middle-class family. Thank you.

When and how did cousin marriage become taboo in the United Kingdom?

I'm writing a novel set in the 1860s-90s (haven't quite settled on the exact decade), and have been unsuccessfully trying to research this question. I've trawled through books and articles in University Library Cambridge, but I'm guessing I must not have hit on the right search terms. I've asked Reddit's Ask a Historian, and their lengthy silence would indicate that they don't know either.

I know that there was first cousin marriage in the early Victorian period, including Queen Victoria herself, Charles Darwin, and so on. Sources tend to emphasise that this was perfectly normal and unremarkable in the day. Nowadays, while cousin marriage is legal, it is almost always practised only in certain immigrant communities and mainstream culture seems to find it disgusting and improper - basically it's considered incest even if it's not legally incest.

What I'm trying to determine is this:

When did the cultural shift in which first cousin marriage stopped being widely acceptable take place?

What instigated this change?

Thanks for clicking on this thread.

I have a question on the ancient history of South Sudan...

Could it be considered that South Sudan shares its ancient history with to-date Sudan, or are the two completely unrelated? Im aware some of the tribes in South Sudan date to as back as 5000 years ago, but I am not entirely sure if it would be worthless to talk a bit about the Kushite dynasty in a project on South Sudan I have for school. Also, if they are unrelated(which is my guess), what could I say about South Sudan's ancient history? thanks in advance

Cost of horse tack in 13th century Languedoc

Does anyone know the approximate price for a saddle, or any other item of horse tack (stirrups, spurs, bridles etc) in Occitania, i.e. what is now the South of France, in 1215, or thereabouts?

I suspect the question is too specific (or, to put it another way, I suspect the answer is "no, no-one knows"). So, to broaden things out,

- how about the cost of any of these items in the first two decades of the thirteenth century?
- or, failing that, the first half of the thirteenth century? Or any time in the thirteenth century?
- or, if Occitania is too challenging, how about France? Or England? Or anywhere in Western Europe?

I realise that that implies that the payment might be made in any of a large number of currencies (Toulouse pennies, Tours pennies, Parisian pennies, English pennies, etc etc). That doesn't worry me too much; I reckon that there's enough data available to convert between them.

I've tried what I believe to be the obvious sources: Margaret Wade Labarge's "A baronial household of the thirteenth century" (1965); Joseph & Frances Gies' "Life in a medieval city" (1969); James Thorold Rogers' "A history of agriculture and prices in England, vol.1" (1866). And, bearing in mind the war raging in Languedoc in the decade in question, I've tried the main primary sources on the Albigensian Crusade - Pierre Des Vaux de Cernay, William of Tudela + the Anonymous Continuator, William of Puylaurens. Not to mention the more well known histories of the Albigensian Crusade: Jonathan Sumption, Zoe Oldenbourg. No joy with any of them.

Any ideas?
talking 2

Osiris Festival of the Dead

There doesn't seem to be much activity here, but someone to ask is just the kind of thing I'm looking for. I hope someone is around to see this.

I have been trying to work out some of the particulars about the history of Halloween. That seems to be one of those topics where, well, you should double-check things. And some writers refer to an Egyptian festival of the dead involving Osiris and ghosts of the departed walking the streets and visiting their families. I've seen it a few times, with no time period or sources mentioned. That's not really something I would have expected from what I'd read before on the Egypt of the pharaohs. Maybe it's the Greek Anthesteria coming to hellenistic Alexandria?

What I'm really looking for is some suggested reading. Or at least key terms that might give me a little better luck with the database searches.

French POW's in WW2 Germany

I am writing a picture book that will be illustrated and published this year about a story from my mom's life. She grew up in Germany during WW2 and lived on a farm. Her family was obliged to take in French POWs as agricultural labour - which is what the story is about. The question is: what sort of uniform would these POWs have worn on the farm? My mom remembers a dark blue uniform with a white stripe across the chest and back, but she's not 100% sure and I really do need to be sure. If you can help, that would be terrific.
green soldier levels city with bazooka

What is the earliest recorded pet clothing?

I hope this doesn't sound silly; I'm actually sincerely curious about it. One quote about history and anthropology that has always stuck with me is, "human nature doesn't change." If this is true, then should we not expect to see the behavior some modern humans show in dressing up their pets just to look cute to also persist throughout human cultures and history? Think of when you snuggle your favorite pet and want to put something pretty on it. That same emotion would exist in any human (or at least people with the same personality type), in any time.

I'm looking for example of pet clothing just for the purpose of a doting owner making the pet look cute, pretty, or elegant, not animal clothing that serves the purpose of protecting it in battle or displaying a fighter's coat of arms.

I actually went to google first, but my normally decent skills have failed me and left me with a bunch of vapid results pointing to pet costume retailers.

Thank you very much for any guidance! This seemingly trivial question really is important to me!

Palace of Fishbourne


I have a Latin assignment to complete at school and we are asked to write about the Palace of Fishbourne. I'm just wondering if anyone knows what the size of the Palace is and also what materials were used in building the Palace.


Pedro de Alvarado - Spanish Conquistador

I am doing a paper on Pedro de Alvarado, and I am required to "ask a historian" as one of my sources. I have done some research online and in the library, but I would be very grateful for any information that you give me in general on this explorer, but also on the following questions:

1- How many countries did Pedro de Alvarado invade? Are there other countries besides Mexico, Peru, & Guatemala?

2 - Why do you think he went to Hispaniola in 1510 with his uncle & brothers? There are many sources that say he went, but none say why he went.

3-How did he die? I have read that he died because a horse rolled over him during a battle. I have also read that he was lost at sea, and another source said that he died from a fall. Which of these do you believe to be true?

4 - When was he born (or your best guess)? Some sources say that he was born in 1485, some say 1495, and others say that nobody knows when he was born but was probably between 1485 & 1495.

Thank you for your help!